This paper traces the origins of the concept of permaculture and
discusses the sustainability of permaculture itself as a form of
alternative agriculture. It is argued that future
permaculture movements should focus on revitalising the communitarian
spirit of traditional farming villages instead of building intentional
The paper also calls for more aggressive environmental-policy measures
that support permaculture and internalise the non-market value of
reduced fossil-fuel energy consumption and waste recycling.