There is a range of forest management systems between pure extraction
and plantation systems. Such “intermediate systems” range from wild
forests modified for increased production of selected products to
anthropogenic forests with a high-density of valuable species growing
within a relatively diverse and complex structure. These systems,
classed here as “Forest Garden Systems” (FGS), have important
socioeconomic and ecological benefits, and yet they have been largely
overlooked by researchers, development practitioners, and policy makers.
Based on case examples and the authors’ experience, this paper analyzes
the socioeconomic and institutional factors that explain the
development, persistence, and decline of FGS.